Access to Justice Human Rights for all, Promoting Education & Research on Human Rights


Secondary Education Society, Maharashtra, under SR Act 21-1860. The Board, under Government of India, is Legal Autonomous and nonprofit Institution and has legal right of teaching & training under the provision of constitution. It has been constituted to regulate non formal Primary, Middle, Matriculation (10th), Senior Secondary (12th) education and other vocational courses (Under Self Employment Education Scheme) in India.With the help of educational experts to educate uneducated boys, girls, men and women to up liftment the literacy in India. So that they can serve society effectively and with dignity. Board may impart education with international techniques and with stress on morally, mentally, physically and socially personality. Ours is an autonomous body and all educational boards / universities are autonomous bodies. Each educational organization having discretionary powers. According these powers every Board / University /State Govt. / Central Govt. of India having the liberty and right to take own decision either to allow or refuse any admission / service. But we do our best to make success the non formal education programme. All the education programmerun by the board is board’s own autonomous education programme. Legality,Validity, Utility of the education programme is strict conformity with the constitution of India and law of the land under Article 19(1)G, 29 & 30. Under Human Rights Protection Act, 1993, autonomous bodies like the Board have been given special protection. For further details please see AIR 1993 SC 217B. Secondary Education Society Under Registered Govt. of India, Planning Commission, An added autonomous Board ruining successfully. Which is run by under the Indian trust act 1950,To educate those who are not educated in conventional manner pioneer Board of all Deeps in the Country The aims and objectives of the Board/Council is to provide basic education for primary, high school, intermediate which includes10th & 12th Class courses. The mission of the Boardis to achieve all round development and growth for the masses through education.
1. Secondary Education Society is an autonomous independent and Non–Governmental Board for the conduct of Secondary and Senior Secondary School Examination, providing an alternative to choose from either Government aided Boards or a Non-Government independent Autonomous Body. The Board/Council aims to provide education to all children, especially to those in rural and remote areas, at least up to the Senior Secondary level. It is further submitted that the Board is a private initiative for the establishment of a Non-Government Board for conducting 10th and 12th Common Examination for students studying in schools affiliated and likely to be affiliated by Delhi Board of Senior Secondary Education.
2. The Board/Council trustees/members has the constitutional right under Article 19 (1) (g) to pursue any profession or any occupation and running teaching institutes have been included as part of occupation as held by Hon'ble Supreme Court in T.M.A. Pai Foundation Vs. State of Karnataka (SC) 2003 (2) SCT 385. The relevant portion of the above said judgment is reproduced as under:- “ Private education is one of the most dynamic and fastest growing segments of post-secondary education at the turn of the twenty –first century. A combination of unprecedented demand for access to higher education and the inability or unwillingness of government to provide the necessary support has brought private higher education to the fore front. Private institutions with along history in many countries, are expanding in scope and number, and are becoming increasingly important in parts of the world that relied almost entirely on the public sector.
3. Not only has demand overwhelmed the ability of the governments to provide education, there has also been a significant change in the way that higher education is perceived. The idea of an academic degree as a “private good” that benefits the individual rather than a “public good” for society is now widely (sic). The logic of today’s economics and an ideology of privatization have contributed to the resurgence of private higher education, and the establishing of private institutions where none or very few existed before.
4. The right to establish and administer broadly comprises of the following rights:-
a. to admit students;
b. to set up a reasonable fee structure;
c. to constitute a governing body;
d. to appoint staff (teaching and non-teaching); and
e. to take action if there is dereliction of duty on the part of any employees.
5. A University Education Commission was appointed on 4th November, 1948, having Dr. S. Radhakrishnan as its Chairman and nine other renowned educationists as its Members. The terms of reference, inter alia, included matters relating to means and objects of university education and research in India and maintenance of higher standards of teaching and examination in universities and colleges under their control. In the report submitted by this commission, in paras 29 and 31, it referred to autonomy in education which reads as follows:- “University Autonomy- Freedom of individual development is the basis of democracy. Exclusive control of education by the State has been an important factor in facilitating the maintenance of total itarian tyrannies. In such States institutions of higher learning controlled and managed by governmental agencies act like mercenaries, promote the political purposes of the State, make them acceptable to an increasing number of their populations and supply them with the weapons they need. We must resist, in the interests of our own democracy, the trend towards the governmental domination of the educational process. Higher education is, undoubtedly, an obligation of the State but State aid is not to be confused with State control over academic policies and practices. Intellectual progress demands the maintenance of the spirit of free inquiry. The pursuit and practice of truth regardless of consequences has been the ambition of universities. Their prayer is that of the dying Goethe: “More light” or that of Ajax in the mist “Light, though I perish in the light”. XXXX XXX XXXX The respect in which the universities of Great Britain are held is due to the freedom from governmental interference which they enjoy constitutionally and actually. Our universities should be released from the control of politics. Liberal Education- All education is expected to be liberal. It should free us from the shackles of ignorance, prejudice and unfounded belief. If we are incapable of achieving the good life, it is due to faults in our inward being, to the darkness in us. The process of education is the slow conquering of this darkness. To lead us from darkness to light, to free us from every kind of domination except that of reason, is the aim of education”
6. There cannot be a better exposition than what has been observed by these renowned educationists with regard to autonomy in education. The aforesaid passage clearly shows that the governmental domination of the educational process must be resisted. Another pithy observation of the Commission was that state aid was not to be confused with state control over academic policies and practices. The observations referred to hereinabove clearly contemplate educational institutions soaring to great heights in pursuit of intellectual excellence and being free from unnecessary government controls.”
7. The only reasonable restriction on the exercise of this right can be imposed under Article 19 (1) (g) and is imposed in clause 19 (6). The only restriction is that State can make the law imposing reasonable restriction in the interest of general public or any restriction regarding profession and technical qualification necessary for practicing any profession or occupation, trade or business. Since so far no such professional or technical qualification have been notified, therefore, the trustees/members of the Board/Council through their Society have a fundamental right to carry on the profession / occupation of running the Institutes which imparts education.
8. We want to also clarify that some states an objection has been pointed out to the name of the Board/Council in private sector but later all such objections have been resolved after the Board/Council pointed out that the world “Board” / “Council” is not reserved by any statute that it can not be used by any other trust. Many Boards/Councils had applied to the Registration Authority and they have approved of the name of “Board” /Council. If there would have been any objection to its name or this name is not permitted by law then the Registrar would not had registered it.
9. It is also pertinent to mention here that one of the prominent and well known Boards providing Secondary and Senior Secondary Examinations for the students all over the country is the Council for Indian School Certificate Examinations (ICSE), which is a registered society. Under HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION ACT ,1993 autonomous bodies have been given special protection & consideration.( For further details refer: AIR 1993 SC-217B. OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEM: The concept of distance education is good alternative to the heavily strained formal education system. The pressure in the field of higher education is ever increasing as more students apply for different courses every year. The number of students entering university has been rising at an average rate of 7per cent a year. At present, more than 30 University are offering correspondence courses. The Open Education gives opportunities to all people who are not in a position to go to college or University to acquire degrees .They are convenient for the disadvantaged groups, living in remote areas and those who are employed. They enable students to pursue their education at their convenience without relying on rigid daily schedules and the constraints of attendance in classrooms. On 5th August 1985, the Union minister of Education said in the Rajya Sabha that The Open University would open an important era in educational technology and will be a role model in educational technology and in method of teaching different courses to the poor. The Open Education System gives sufficient flexibility in academic matters. It has a multimedia approach to instruction. The students have to make use the radio, the television, C.D. and computers, in addition to books, the study centre’s, located at places convenient for the students, serve as a storehouse of knowledge. The authorities of the Open Education System take steps to conduct periodic discussions and seminars on difficult and important topics. The Open Education System in our country produces good results in the field of higher education.

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